Morality = Practice (repeat of actions) of moral principles (principles are complex rules that include conditions of their application).
M-HIS consists of the practice of certain moral principles for the purpose of promoting and protecting valuable and vulnerable things.
e.g. things of moral worth may be humans, human institutions (democracy, science), animals, etc.
Ethics: the philosophical study of morality.
Philosophical work consists in the application of 2 sets of tests to evaluate the worth of Ideas and Actions:
|Set of Rationality (or reasonableness) tests||...||
Set of Impartiality tests
Impartial means unbiased, non-prejudiced, fair
Thus: Morality requires us to be rational and impartial at the same time.
It requires us to do 3 things:
1. Do the Right thing
2. for the Right Reasons
(Justify our judgements)
3. toward all objects|
. of moral worth (*)
(*) Objects of moral worth have intrinsic value, not only instrumental
Instrumental value = is a means to a further value. Intrinsic value = is value in itself (because the thing values itself).
2. Need Right Reasons because some actions cause great harm.
"Right" justifies actions, non-accidental reasons, is a universalizable reason (not universal reason, should be universal even if it's not).
"harm" to wellfare (material or biological) and dignity (rights, such as free speech right)
"harm" leads to punishment for doing wrong (not doing right).
Three criteria for the Principle of Universalizability:
Principle (form of our obligation) of Universalizability only acts on maxims of actions that can be willed as universally permissible (Immanuel Kant)
Aristotle: It is unreasonable to treat similar things (you and other persons) differently, or treat different things similarly. (Principle of Respect).
Two ways to use people:
2. Motivation: incentives to do right things.
Conscious (awake, aware) <> conscience = a set of feelings associated with right things and wrong things.
3. Develpmental (educational) sub-system
4. Decision-making process:
Maxims of action
Six step moral decision making process
To analyse a case study with several stakeholders involved, follow Dr Gilman suggestion below:
The actions of each stakeholder in the situation involves a different/separate maxim that can be tested by the set of impartiality tests (or more narrowly by the 4 subprinciples of respect).
This is equivalent to reusing the 6-step procedure for each stakeholder who's action-response you want to consider. I had suggested that, at the beginning just consider and test the main character's potential responses to the situation. A full-fledged analysis would consider the responses (the obligations) of all players.
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Revised on 8/4/04