Chapter 2 Summary

by Sandy Montes De Oca

This chapter talks about ethical theories. It explains to us the Socrates Method, which involves a teacher posing a question that the students answer and the anser is followed by future questions that explore aspects of the answer that could be weak or not correct.

It explains the theory of Virtue. This are commendable qualities or traits such as honesty and courage. It emphasizes on moral education since we develop virtous character traits in our youth. Adults are responsible for instilling virtues in the young. Later in medieval times theologians added faith, hope and charity.

Another theory is the Deontological Theory. Under this theory people are supposed to follow fundamental duties on obligations, whatever the consequences might be. With this theory we learned the phrase “to never treat another person merely as a means but always as an end” by Immanuel Kant. This is his fundamental moral rule.

Another Deontological theory is the Rights Theory. This theory says that all people naturally have rights, and other people are obligated to acknowledge them. The Libertarina theory falls under this theory also. It si the notion of self-reliance and individual autonomy free form of government and social constraints. Egoism and Altruism are part of this also.

The Social Contract Theory is an explicit agreement that is freely entered into. In this theory Hobbes proposed that for purely selfish reasons people are better off living in the world with moral rules than one without moral rules.

Ch2 summary by Sultana Sikander.

Chapter 3 Summary

by Sandy Montes De Oca

In this chapter it explains to us what the word logic is. It tells us that early philosophers as Aristotle and Hindu Kanada Kasyapa studied logic, and over time, other logicians developed this investigation. It explains to us that today logic is precise, rational, mathematical, and symbolic.
Formal logic is using reason to infer one thing from another is not always the anser in ethical reasoning.
In formal logic a fallacious logic argument can justify evil actions.
According to this chapter there are all sorts of logical fallacies or errors., intentional or unintentional. The chapter gives several examples of logical fallacies.
Syllogistic reasoning is an argument that has three statements. The first two statements are premises, and the last one is the conclusion. This chapter gives us a classic example of syllogistic reasoning. All men are mortal, Socrates is a man, Socrates is mortal. The last statement is true if the two first ones are true.

In the 1800's according to this chapter the study of logic split into two schools formal and informal. Informal logic focused on the application of logical concepts to the analysis of everyday reasoning and problem-solving also known as critical thinking. The chapter also gives us an example of an analog such as the price-test at Amazon.com and dynamic pricing.

The chapter also talks about the term Stakeholders. A stakeholder is anyone who has an interest in a particular decision, either as an individual or as a representative of a group. It also includes people who influence a decision, or can influence it, as well as those affected, directly or indirectly, by the action. Like in the example of dynamic pricing in Amazon.com. The chapter says that the stakeholders would be the shoppers, the employees who developed the software and every other online company.

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