Computer Security.
Let's organize our time together.

Netiva Caftori
CS-460

Fall 2008

I hope we'll have a great semester together           view on Chicago downtown

Welcome to Computer security!

Tentative Course Schedule
CS-109 Tuesday Thursday Notes
1 Aug. 26th 2008 - Introduction 8/28/08 Introduction to Computer security. Readings. Change of registration 1/7-11; 14-15
2 Sept. 2nd 2008 - Turn in summary of readings. 9/4/08 Privacy May drop course till Nov. 7th or apply for pass/fail option till Sept. 8th
3 9/9/08 Privacy after 9/11
9/11/08 7 years
special guest
Teams work on their own on Thur.
4 9/16 - cryptography

9/18 - Choose teams

Teams work together
5 9/23/2008 - Policy 9/25 - Assignment 1 due.
Team work.
Ask if you have a question.
6 9/30/08 - Guest visit. Rosh hashana Oct. 2nd 2008 Program security Prepare your team presentation
7 10/7 - Business security 10/9 - Yom KippurAssignment 2 almost due. Pick a time for your presentation.
8

10/14 - Cindy Hodges presents

a special guest

10/16 - Virus/worm team presentation Check Math and computer science database
and General information technology guides
9 10/21/2008 - Software security team presentation.
Create a web page using html
10/23/08 - Hacking team presentation
Work on your web page
Teams work together
10 10/28 - Forensics team presentation.
Examples of security
Exam 1
10/30 - Exam questions are due
Women in computing
Share your team work with the class.
11 Nov. 4th, 2008 - First presentation on copyright by Ivan 11/6 - Blogging .
Work on Assignment 3.
Last day to drop a course is Nov. 7th
12 11/11 - Network security by Trish 11/13 - Asfiya's presentation? What's a good presentation?
13 11/18/2008 - team presentations 11/20 Abdul M on cryptography. Tawat on PTP
Legal and ethical issues
..Work on your presentation
14 11/25 - Fayaz on policy.
Protecting operating systems
11/27 - Thanksgiving Special guest on Tuesday
Thapa on cyber terrorism?
15 Dec. 2nd, 2008 - Last presentations 12/4/08 - Last day of class Happy holidays:)
16 12/9 - No finals for this class:) 12/11 - have a nice holiday season... No final exam--No meeting next week. Grades are due by Dec. 15th

Cs-460 meets in Fine Art FA 104 on Tues.-Thurs. at 4:15-5:30 pm.


Grading philosophy

  • 2-3 Assignments will count for 20% of your grade.
  • 1 or 2 exam/s will count for 10-20% of your grade.
  • Journaling and final paper will count for 30%
  • Team presentation will count for 10%
  • Individual presentation will count for 10%
  • Participation in class will count for 10%
  • group discussion will count for 10%.
Study hard

Guest presentation

Synopsis:
We will be examining the role of technology in a post 9/11 world.
As government, businesses and citizens become increasingly reliant
on technology, many experts argue that we are increasingly vulnerable to
terrorist attacks. Computer networks are potential targets for terrorists
seeking to disrupt our daily routine using either direct or indirect methods.
Recently, data discovered on Al Qaeda's computers suggests that the group's
members have scouted systems that control American energy facilities,
water distribution, communication systems, and other critical infrastructure.
Several experts argue that currently, terrorist organizations may have the
means but do not possess the knowledge to pull off a large-scale event.
So, how vulnerable are we? What preparedness effort has the United States
government made toward prevention and responding to cyber-attack? and what
plan is in place to ensure that the community recovers quickly? What steps
can government agencies, businesses and citizens take to improve computer
security in the future?

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Textbooks

Two books:
  1. Computer Network Security and Cyber Ethics
    Author: Kizza, Joseph Migga
    
    ISBN10: 0786425954
    Edition/Copyright: 2ND 08
    Publisher: McFarland & Company, Inc. Publishers
    Cover: Paperback
    
    
    This fully updated edition of the 2002 Choice Outstanding Academic
    Title opens with three chapters new to this edition introducing
    morality, ethics, and technology and value. The author demonstrates
    the central role of morality and ethics in the deliberations and
    decisions of people handling information technology. Also discussed in
    depth is the value technology adds and the role it plays in the
    decision-making process.
    Like the first edition, this book focuses on security issues with the
    intent of increasing the public's awareness of the magnitude of cyber
    vandalism, the weaknesses and loopholes inherent in the cyberspace
    infrastructure, and the ways to protect ourselves and our societies.
    The goal is public understanding of the nature and motives of cyber
    acts, how such acts are committed, and the efforts being undertaken to
    prevent future occurrences.
    
    Table of Contents
    1 The changing landscape of cybercrime
    2 Morality
    3 Ethics
    4 Morality, technology, and value
    5 Cyberspace infrastructure
    6 Anatomy of the problem
    7 Enterprise networks under attack
    8 Protecting the enterprise network
    9 Parting words : the world in cyberspace
    

Paper

	Research Paper on a Computer Security Topic
	Project Description
	You are to complete a paper on a computer security topic of your 
choice.  
The primary goal of this paper is to give you the chance to more fully 
investigate a topic that is not covered in detail in class. 
	Project Choice
	Students can pick a paper that begins with a topic from 
one of our textbooks that we do not cover much in class 
(such as database security or ethics and security) 
and write a paper that extends that material using other sources).  
You are also free to find other references to expand on what is covered in 
the books (or other material).   The idea here is to do minimal research 
and to summarize two or three references on a topic not well covered in class.
Topics may be:
.	Analysis of different intrusion detection system approaches
.	Analysis of current, commercial database security mechanisms 
(such as comparing Oracle and SQL server)
.	UNIX password security and its enhancement (MS project),
.	A program for supporting the automatic decryption of ciphertext 
(MS project),
.	An analysis of the effect of the 1974 Privacy Act and its effect on 
computer security,
.	Survey of a specific virus or worm type and how they work,
.	Secure database management system (MS project),
.	Operating system intrusion detection systems,
.	Secure software installation and removal (MS Project), and 
.	Aspects of network security.
.	Analysis of an ethical aspect of working computer programmers related 
to computer security (like using special system privileges improperly to get 
a job done more quickly),
.	Analysis of the NCC security environment and policies and development 
of recommendations to improve the environment,
.	Implementation of a program to automate some aspect of computer 
security (a monitor, expansion of the code-breaking program, etc.), 
.	Computer security implications supporting international travel and 
commerce,
.	A study on the security implications of new technologies such as the 
Clipper Chip, PDAs, etc., or
.	An analysis of US government policy on computer security  or the 
recently released cyberterrorism report

Grading
The criteria are:

Length:	5-10 pages	Abstract to be sent asap
Presentation:	 (10 minute + 5 min. questions)
You may use textbooks but not as primary source
Other references	1-2 needed	 

Grading will be as follows: 

Grammar, Form, Length	20%
Content	70%
Accuracy	10%

I expect the spelling to be correct throughout and the grammar to be 
correct English.  Make sure to get someone else to read over your paper 
before handing it in.  You should also consider having the writing center 
look over your paper.  The content of the paper is the most important part 
of the paper.  A template for the expected outline may be handed out later.  
You must properly attribute any references or quotes to the source.

Team presentations

  • All members of the team should present from 5 to 15 minutes
  • Besides PowerPoint other tools may be used
  • First slide should include title and names of presenters
  • Last slide should have references
  • For each presenter there should be a slide or more
  • Each slide should have an outline only
  • Images are encouraged
  • Talk about your research, field visits, thoughts, conclusions
  • look in people's eyes. Ask questions.
  • Practice among yourselves.

Rubric

When you are going to participate in the 4 sessions of individual presentations I'd like you to listen to your friends carefully and make all the efforts to learn, participate and encourage your peer who is presenting. Take notes and fill out the following rubric for each student:
1. Knowledge of subject (1-5, 5 being best)
2. clarity of presentation
3. originality of thoughts and conclusions
4. How relevant is the topic to current issues?

Team presentations

Software security


Secure Software Programming Abstract
In this article, we intend to identify the flaws in the current practices of software programming. These flaws induce vulnerabilities in today's
end-user programs and architectures. It is imperative that programmers instill ethical logic and debugging
standards, in order for the infrastructure of computing to build on a new, sounder, safer, more secure foundation.
We will ask why these flaws exist and then we will give solutions.theoretical and practical. We also intend to exploit these vulnerabilities
through example.
The following topics will be identified throughout the article:
. bugs in Windows XP & Vista
. SQL injection, magic URLs, and hidden forms
. Data Encryption Software or Identity Management Software
. Network Operating Systems and Email Software Security
Presented by:
Ivan Temesvari, Robert Rostkowski, Patricia Miller, Paul Thach

Hacking
See page by Abdul M. and page by Waseem.
See another security presentation by Abdul M.

See team presentation on hacking.

Viruses/worms
See presentation by the team on viruses.

Also see Network security, a presentation by Kimberly on EMP.

Forensics
See page by Thapa.

Also see Privacy a presentation by Waseem.

Kim Tracy's presentation about NEIU security

  • Network security, including wireless security, using VLANs, DMZs, IPS/IDS, Load Balancer, etc
  • Authentication with a changing population of users, have deployed an Identity Management
    solution, considering an Access Management solution (which helps with single sign-on and better control of access to systems) and also an SSL VPN (which I did not mention). Authentication in the student labs is another issue.
  • Application security. Includes the security model in large applications like our ERP (Enterprise Resource Planner, we use Sungard Banner),
    but also includes the security models for the personalized access via the Portal (NEIUport) and other systems (like reporting). SSL Certificates are also important.
  • Spam, Phishing and Viruses (have spam and virus filters on e-mail as well as on all maintained computers)
  • Audit and Regulatory Compliance: CALEA, FERPA, HIPPA and our own internal policies (like the acceptable use policy).
  • Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery, Emergency planning: includes building a DR site, emergency notifications
    We also worry about physical security, which was not mention.
    SW Security references: Viega and McGraw is a good book.

    Exam questions

    The following questions were given by your classmates from material read or discussed in class.
    1. Discuss briefly OSI Reference Model.
      ANS:
      To streamline network communication ISO (International Organization for Standardization) developed the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection)
      reference model. It consists of seven layers: physical, data-link, network, transport, session, presentation, and application.
    2. Define protocol. Give an example.
      ANS:
      A protocol is a rule or language that two computers speak while enabling the connection, communication, and data transfer
      between two computing endpoints.
      Example: TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is the most commonly used network layer protocol that provides a reliable flow of data between two computers.
    3. What is the difference between WPA and WEP?
      A. WEP-wired equivalency privacy uses state encryption keys which are used for all clients and remain static and are generally unchanged
      WPA- Wi-Fi Protected Access uses unique encryption keys for each wireless client and are dynamic and are changed frequently
    4. What is SQL injection?
      A. Malicious or unauthorized SQL commands which are entered by a user to perform SQL commands on a hosts database.
    5. What is buffer overflow?
      A. It occurs when the input data for a given parameter exceeds its capacity and overflows into the system stack memory, potentially overwriting other information/
      variables and/or executing malicious commands.
    6. How does a 3-way handshake work?
      A. The client sends a SYN packet, then the server sends back a SYN-ACK packet, and then the client sends an ACK packet followed by the rest of the
      transmission packets.
    7. : What is the biggest difference between hacking in the 2000s vs. the 1980s?
      A: The hackers worked in groups in the 1980s and are now working as individuals in the 2000s.
    8. What is the best way to prevent cyber crimes?
      A: Mass awareness programs and educating users in how to protect hardware and software.
    9. List four network topologies.
      A: Tree, bus, star, and ring.
    10. Which one of the four topologies utilizes a unidirectional connection where clients take turns with a token?
      A: Ring.
    11. Does the author believe educating morals and values is important for our society in regards to responsible use of computers?
      A: Yes
    12. List the three components of a technological process. A: Input, engine, process.
    13. Identify at least one useful tool of the Holodeck software in implementing secure software.
      A: Find bugs, buffer overflows, file corruption.
    14. Why is identity management an issue throughout the NEIULAN, and how can this issue be improved?
      A: Because, the clients can use the workstations as guests. The LAN should maintain a user secure login.
    15. What is IP-spoofing?
      A: Changing the source IP address of a datagram.
    16. Give an example of a session attack and describe it.
      A: Packet sniffing; frames that are sent between two nodes are intercepted and their contents could be changed, modified, or deleted.
    17. Fill in the blanks: Security is about _________ adverse _____________ from the intentional and ____________ actions of others.
      A: preventing; consequences, unwarranted
    18. What is the goal of the book Beyond Fear?
      A: To demystify security, to help you move beyond fear, and give you the tools to start making sensible security trade-offs.
    19. Give an example of an extreme trade-off.
      A: If you were afraid of credit card fraud, then don.t own a credit card.
    20. Why is more security not always a better option?
      A: Because of all the trade-offs.
    21. : Who are the players?
      A: The parties involved in the security decision making process.
    22. How can security systems fail?
      A: They can fail in the face of attack; the passive failures. They can fail by doing what they are supposed to do, but at the wrong time; active failures.
    23. How does the author describe security?
      A: Security is a system of individual countermeasures and the interactions between them.
    24. How many Network types are there and how they are used?
      A) There are Three types of Networks,namely
      LAN(Local Area Network)
      MAN(Metropolitan Area Network) and
      WAN(Wide Area Network)
      LAN is used in a small geographical area such as building floor, a building, or a few adjacent buildings.
      MAN is used in an average geographical area such as a streetor a colony.
      WAN covers a large geographical area,such as a City or a state.
    25. How Many Network Layers are there and what are they?
      A) There are seven types of Layers in a Network.
      1. Application Layer.
      2. Transport Layer.
      3. Network Layer.
      4. Data Link Layer.
      5. Physical Layer.
      6. Session Layer and
      7. Transport Layer.

    26. What is Distributed Denial of service ?
      A) It is a type of denial of service attack in which the attacker uses malicious code installed on various computers to attack a single target.
    27. What is Blind Hijacking?
      A) It is a type of session hijacking in which the Intruder guesses the response of two communicating elements and becomes a fully trusted participant without
      ever seeying the responses.
    28. What is a Backdoor?
      A) It is basically a hardware or software-based hidden entry to a computer system, which can be used to bypass the system.s security policies.
    29. What is the name of the procedure which is followed by computers to communicate with each other?
      A) 3-Way Handshake.
    30. What is Denial of Service(DoS) and what is the difference between DoS and DDoS attack?
      A) Denial of service prevents the authorized access to a system resource or delay system operations and functions.
      In denial of service attack an attacker, a process or a system prevents legitimate users from accessing a network service by exploiting a weakness vor design
      limitation in an information system, which includes flooding of network connections, disabling ports etc..,
      whereas in Distributed denial of service(DDoS) attack an attacker uses malicious code installed on various computers to attack a single target.
    31. Which is National Preparedness Month?
      Ans) September.
    32. Which approach did the United States adopt for Disaster and Terrorism Management and How many phases are there for that approach. List them.
      Ans) "all-hazards" is the approac for Disaster and Terrorism Management. And there are four phases to the all-hazards approach,known as the four "R"s.
      - Readiness.
      - Response.
      -Recovery.
      -Resilience.
    33. The type(s) of data switchng discussed in chapter five are;
      a.) digital switching & packet switching
      b.) circuit switching & digital switching
      c.) circuit switching & packet switching
      d.) digital switching
      Ans: c) circuit switching & packet switching
    34. True or False
      The author (in ch. 4) believes that if a technology contributes to our good moral values then it is a good and useful technoloy.
      Ans: true
    35. The 2nd generation cybercrimes that were committed in the 1990s were mainly committed for what reason?
      a.) notoriety (the answer:)
      b.) personal gain
      c.) both
      d.) none of the above

    36. What is fear?
      A) It is basically a barrier between ignorance and understanding. Its kind of a hesitation a person would get when he/she is not certain or is scared about the result or the consequences.
    37. What is security?
      A) It is preventing adverse consequences from intentional and unwarranted actions of others.
    38. What are the 5 Step processes to analyze and evaluate security systems?
      A) The 5 steps are:
      1) What assets are you trying to protect
      2)What are the risks to these assets
      3)How well does the security solution mitigate those risks
      4)What other risks does the security solution cause
      5)What costs and trade-offs does the security solution impose?

    39. The period before_________ was an experimental period?
      A) 1980.
    40. _________ led the second generation to cybercrimes?
      A)Whiz-Kids.
    41. ____________ is a mass education strategy which has been used since the beginning of humanity?
      A)Advocacy.
    42. What is FRC stands for?
      A)Family Research Council.

    43. Attacks are being made mainly for the personal gain. Explain it?
      Ans: Before attacks were made mostly for fun by Wiz-kids but now a days they are being made for the personal gain. For example anyone could
      hack someone's identity to take advantage of it.

    44. How can we make our network secure?
      Ans: Networks consists of the human made components such as software, hardware, network devices and user.The security of the network is the security of
      these components.That means each network components should be built strong to minimize the cybercrime.
    45. Why security's effectiveness can be extremely hard to measure?
      Ans:The level of security depends upon the
      risks.You first do the risk analysis to build certain level of security. But there are tangiable and intangiable risks associated with us. we cannot analyze our complete risk so, its hard to measure security's effectiveness.
      Most of the time we hear about the security only when it fails.

    46. Security means both feelings and reality. What does it mean? Differentiate with example.
      Ans: Security is both feelings and reality. For example, I think that I am living in a very good neighbourhood. i feel secure that i dont need to afraid of
      burglers. this is feelings of security. But when we actually do trade-offs like we spent some cost to built strong doors and windows to be secure from the burglers then this is the reality of security.
    47. What are the three components of technological process?How they are used in decision making process?
      Ans:The three components are: inputs, an engine and outputs.They are used to solve dilemmas in decision making process of choosing good or bad technology. The
      input parameters are premises.Mapping is an engine that creates output, which is the decision.
    48. What are the factors to be considered inorder to establish the good technologies?
      Ans:Moral and ethics education, good legal system and advocacy are very important factors in order to established the good technologies.
    49. What is privacy?Why is it an important issue?
      Ans:Privacy is something that is very personal and we actually dont want the public to know about it.Now a days we are loosing our privacy in many ways-internet,
      office, goverment rules etc. So, it has been an importnat issues in the world.
    50. We are compromising our privacy with security.Are we secure now?
      Ans:In my point of view, as we know all security needs trade-off, means we must loose something to be secure but it does not mean why privacy?There might be some other
      factors to be compromised with security.I dont want to be secure loosing all my privacy.I might feel insecure from inside without my privacy.
    51. What are the major components of computer comuunication network?
      Ans:Computer communication network
      consists of hardware, software, and humanware.Hardware consists of hosts, hubs, bridges, routers and gateways.Software consists of different communication protocols and humanware as users of information.
    52. What is Multiplexing?Name some of the types of multiplexing techniques.
      Ans:If the volume of the transmitted data exceed the capacity of the medium it may be possible to share the transmission medium called Multiplexing. Generally there are
      three types of multiplexing that has been used:TDM(Time Division Multiplexing), FDM(Frequency Devision Multiplexing) and CDM(Code Division Multiplexing).
    53. Why we need trade-offs to be secure?Give an example.
      Ans:Trade-offs are actually precausions to stay and feel secure.This world is no more good place to stay and live secure.We have risk at every point.So, we should act
      upon it, means do something to be secure.
      That's the reason why we need trade-offs. For example if we have a risk of burglers and thieves in our home, we make our doors and windows strong.
      It costs something to be built such home. It means we have security trade-offs with cost.
    54. No one can get the resonable security withh out trade-offs. Do you agree or not?Give reason.
      Ans:I do agree with this statement because we have numerous risks in our life, even if not any man made risk we still have natural disasters. Person having no risk is
      impossible and risk is associated to the key term to analyze the security percausions to be done to minimize it or to be secure and that is trade-off.

    55. What is fear?
      A) It is basically a barrier between ignorance and understanding.It's kind of a hesitation a person would get when he/she is not certain or is scared about the result or the
      consequences.
    56. What is security?
      A) It is preventing adverse consequences from intentional and unwarranted actions of others.
    57. What are the 5Step processes to analyze and evaluate security systems?
      A) The 5 steps are:
      1) What assets are you trying to protect
      2)What are the risks to these assets
      3)How well does the security solution mitigate those risks
      4)What other risks does the security solution cause
      5)What costs and trade-offs does the security solution impose?

    58. Who recruited a new type of attacker?
      A) AL Qaeda.
    59. Who attacked the First National bank of Northfield in Northfield, Minnesota?
      A)James Gang.
    60. In the professional lingo of those who work in security, there is an important distinction drawn between ----------- and ------------ ?
      A) Threat and Risk.
    61. Threats determines_______________ and the_________ determines the ________________?
      A)Risks,Risks,Countermeasures.
    62. What is the reasons security is so hard to get right is that it inevitably involves different parties?
      A) Due to Players.
    63. Who spends about a hundred times more money per phone on battery security than on communications security?
      A)Nokia.

    64. Which is National Preparedness Month?
      Ans) September.
    65. Which is the approach did United States adopted for Disaster and Terrorism Management and How many phases are there for that approach.List them.
      Ans) "all-hazards" is the approac for Disaster and Terrorism Management.And there are four phases to the all-hazards approach,known as the four "R"s.
      - Readiness.
      - Response.
      -Recovery.
      -Resilience.

      
      
      Chapter-5 Cyberspace Infrastructure from Computer Network Security and 
      Cyber Ethics
      1.	Explain in detail TCP/IP Protocol Architecture
      TCP/IP has Four Layers: 
      Application Layer: Application layer protocols are those used for the 
      exchange of user information. Protocol uses here are 
      Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), File Transfer Protocol (FTP), Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) etc. Host-to-Host Transport Layer: The core protocols of the Transport layer are Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the User
      Datagram Protocol (UDP). TCP provides a one-to-one, connection-oriented, reliable communications service. UDP provides a one-to-one or one-to-many, connectionless, unreliable communications service. Internet Layer: The Internet layer is responsible routing of IP packet. The core protocols of the Internet layer are IP,
      ARP (Address Resolution Protocol, ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol), and IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol). The Internet Protocol (IP) is a routable protocol responsible for IP addressing, routing, and the fragmentation and
      reassembly of packets. Network Interface Layer: The Network Interface layer (also called the Network Access layer) is responsible for placing TCP/IP packets on the network
      medium and receiving TCP/IP packets off the network medium. Hardware Devices: Hubs, Switch, Bridge etc hardware devices used here. 2. Write short notes on Ethernet. Ethernet is a frame-based computer networking technology for local area networks (LANs). It is Network of two or more Computers. Standard Name: IEEE 802.3 Local Area Network (LAN) protocols. Protocol: data are transmitted using the popular Carrier-Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) protocol Ethernet Technologies: Three data rates are currently defined for operation over optical fiber and twisted-pair cables. They are: 10 Mbps - 10Base-T Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) 100 Mbps - Fast Ethernet (IEEE 802.3u) 1000 Mbps - Gigabit Ethernet (IEEE 802.3z) Ethernet Network Elements: Ethernet LANs consist of network nodes and interconnecting media. The network nodes fall into two major classes: 1. Data terminal equipment (DTE) 2. Data communication equipment (DCE) Chapter-4 Morality, Technology and Value from Computer Network Security and Cyber Ethics 1. Define Technology and list three components of Technological process? Technology is a rational process of creating a means to order and transform matter, energy, and information to realize
      certain valued ends. Technological processes have three components: Inputs, Engines and Outputs. 2. How to make good use of Technology? Value of any technology depends on how we use the technology. Every technology should have a regulated policy. New
      Laws to strengthen, new moral and ethical concepts and massive education campaign to make good use of technology. Chapter-1 All Security Involves Trade-offs from Beyond Fear 1. List 5-step process to analyze and evaluate security systems, technologies, and practices. The Five Steps process are as follows: 1. What assets are you trying to protect? 2. What are the risks to these assets? 3. How well does the security solution mitigate those risks? 4. What other risks does the security solution cause? 5. What costs and trade-offs does the security solution impose? 2. Define Attack and Assets Attack means intentional unwarranted actions. An attack is a
      specific way to attempt to break the security of a system or a component of a system. Assets are the objects of attack. Assets can be as small as a single diamond and as large as a nation.s infrastructure. Chapter-2 Security Trade-offs Are Subjective from Beyond Fear 1. Define Threat and Risk. Threat: A potential way an attacker can attack a system. Risk: A likelihood of threat and seriousness of successful attack. 2. Define Risk Management. It.s figuring out which attacks are worth worrying about and which ones can be ignored. .Threat determines the risks, and the risks determine the countermeasures.. Chapter-3 Security Trade-offs depend on power and agenda (Summary) from Beyond Fear 1. Why do we need proxies for easy security trade-offs? Proxies are the players who act in the interest of other players. Proxies are the intermediate person that has specializations in their field. Everyone can.t do everything. So proxies are needed. For E.g.: Hiring a building inspector to evaluate the physical condition of house. This cannot be done by everyone
      unless you are having expertise in it. 2. Which are the two players that create security problems? Attacker and the Attack (Assets owner) are the two players that create security problems. If no attacker than there
      would be no security problems. Questions from Cryptography Presentation 1. Explain Public key Cryptography or Asymmetric Cryptography Public key Cryptography was introduced by Diffie and Hellman in 1976,
      where each person gets a pair of keys, called the
      public key and the private key. Each person's public key is shared
      while the private key is kept secret known only to the recipient of the message.
      Messages are encrypted using the intended recipient's public key and can only be decrypted using his private key.
      Communications involve only public keys, and no private key is ever transmitted or shared. It is called asymmetric encryption because it uses two keys i.e. public key and a private key. E.g.: RSA encryption, PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) 2. Explain Private Key Cryptography or Symmetric Key Cryptography Private Key Cryptography is a cryptographic method in which the
      same key is used to encrypt and decrypt the message. It
      also called Symmetric encryption because it uses only single key.
      Symmetric-key cryptography is sometimes called as secret-key cryptography A problem with private-key cryptography is that the sender and the recipient of the message must agree on a common key
      via some alternative secure channel. E.g.: Data Encryption Standard (DES), triple-DES (3DES), Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). (by Wassim) BF: Chapter 1 True/False. Security threats typically stay underneath the radar by only allowing a chosen few to be
      privy to the plan. This way it is the element of surprise. Answer: True The ____________ and ___________ will allow us to analyze the information and develop a security
      measures that works for our particular need(s). Answer: Policy and Procedures BF: Chapter 2 How does the author describe a risk? Answer: The word .risk. takes into consideration both the likelihood and seriousness of a successful attack. How does the author describe a threat? Answer: The word .threat. is the way an attacker can attack a systems. BF: Chapter 3 The two players to create a security problem: the ____________ and the ______________. Answer: attacker and attacked How does the author describe a policy? Answer: Preventing adverse consequence from the intentional and unwanted actions of people. Chapter 4: What are the three distinct categories of a value system? Answer: Input, Output and Process. Chapter 5: How does the author define topology? Answer: Topology defines the physical layout of the devices on your network. List the different LAN topologies. Answer: Bus, Star, and Ring (by Trish)
    66. Define encryption
    67. Define cryptography

    Lab Hours

    All open labs are open

    • 8am to 10 pm Mon through Thur;
    • 8am to 6pm on Fri,
    • 8am to 1pm on Sat, and
    • 1pm to 5pm on Sun in Library 4th floor lab only.

    Send comments about Netiva Caftori CS-460 to n-caftori@neiu.edu Email your prof

    Last updated: 12/4/08